~Simulation Title Card
1,
STOMP Example Problem CO2-3: 78z,
M.D. White,
Pacific Northwest Laboratory,
24 January 2012,
09:11 PST,
20,
Intercomparison of simulation models for CO2 disposal in
underground storage reservoirs.
Test Problem 7: CO2 Injection into a 2D Layered Brine Formation
This test problem is patterned after the CO2 injection project
at the Sleipner Vest field in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea,
and is intended to investigate the dominant physical processes
associated with the injection of supercritical CO2 into a layered
medium. Significant simplifications have been made, the most important
of which is the assumption of isothermal conditions (37 ̊C, the
ambient temperature of the formation). CO2 injection rates
(1,000,000 tonnes per year), system geometry, and system permeabilities
correspond approximately to those at Sleipner, although no attempt was
made to represent details of the permeability structure within the
host formation. Injection of the supercritical CO2, which is less
dense than the saline formation waters into which it is injected,
causes it to rise through the formation. Its rate of ascent, however,
is limited by the presence of four relatively low permeability shales.
The top and bottom of the formation is assumed to be impermeable.
The only reactive chemistry considered in this problem is the
dissolution of CO2 in the aqueous phase. (Pruess and Garcia, 2000).
~Solution Control Card
Normal,
STOMP-CO2,
1,
0,yr,2,yr,1.0,s,0.1,yr,1.25,16,1.e-06,
10000,
Variable Aqueous Diffusion,
Variable Gas Diffusion,
0,
~Grid Card
Cartesian,
100,1,78,
0.0,m,2.0,m,4.1,m,6.3,m,8.6,m,11.1,m,
13.7,m,16.4,m,19.2,m,22.2,m,25.4,m,28.7,m,
32.2,m,35.8,m,39.7,m,43.8,m,48.0,m,52.5,m,
57.2,m,62.2,m,67.4,m,72.9,m,78.7,m,84.8,m,
91.2,m,97.9,m,105.0,m,112.4,m,120.2,m,128.5,m,
137.1,m,146.2,m,155.8,m,165.9,m,176.5,m,187.6,m,
199.4,m,211.7,m,224.7,m,238.3,m,252.7,m,267.8,m,
283.6,m,300.3,m,317.9,m,336.4,m,355.8,m,376.3,m,
397.8,m,420.4,m,444.2,m,469.2,m,495.5,m,523.2,m,
552.3,m,582.9,m,615.1,m,649.0,m,684.7,m,722.2,m,
761.6,m,803.1,m,846.7,m,892.6,m,940.8,m,991.6,m,
1045.0,m,1101.1,m,1160.2,m,1222.3,m,1287.7,m,1356.4,m,
1428.7,m,1504.8,m,1584.8,m,1668.9,m,1757.4,m,1850.5,m,
1948.4,m,2051.4,m,2159.7,m,2273.7,m,2393.5,m,2519.6,m,
2652.2,m,2791.6,m,2938.3,m,3092.6,m,3254.9,m,3425.6,m,
3605.2,m,3794.0,m,3992.7,m,4201.6,m,4421.4,m,4652.5,m,
4895.7,m,5151.4,m,5420.4,m,5703.4,m,6000.0,m,
0.0,m,1.0,m,
0.0,m,7@3.0,m,1@2.0,m,9@3.0,m,1@2.0,m,
3@1.0,m,
1@1.0,m,1@2.0,m,8@3.0,m,1@2.0,m,1@1.0,m,
3@1.0,m,
1@1.0,m,1@2.0,m,8@3.0,m,1@2.0,m,1@1.0,m,
3@1.0,m,
1@1.0,m,1@2.0,m,8@3.0,m,1@2.0,m,1@1.0,m,
3@1.0,m,
1@1.0,m,1@2.0,m,8@3.0,m,1@2.0,m,1@1.0,m,
~Rock/Soil Zonation Card
9,
Sands,1,100,1,1,1,18,
Shale,1,100,1,1,19,21,
Sands,1,100,1,1,22,33,
Shale,1,100,1,1,34,36,
Sands,1,100,1,1,37,48,
Shale,1,100,1,1,49,51,
Sands,1,100,1,1,52,63,
Shale,1,100,1,1,64,66,
Sands,1,100,1,1,67,78,
~Mechanical Properties Card
Sands,2650,kg/m^3,0.35,0.35,Compressibility,4.5e-10,1/Pa,,,Millington and Quirk,
Shale,2650,kg/m^3,0.1025,0.1025,Compressibility,4.5e-10,1/Pa,,,Millington and Quirk,
~Hydraulic Properties Card
Sands,3.e-12,m^2,3.e-12,m^2,3.e-12,m^2,
Shale,1.e-14,m^2,1.e-14,m^2,1.e-14,m^2,
~Saturation Function Card
Sands,van Genuchten,2.735,1/m,1.667,0.20,0.4,0.0,
Shale,van Genuchten,0.158,1/m,1.667,0.20,0.4,0.0,
~Aqueous Relative Permeability Card
Sands,Mualem Irreducible,0.4,0.20,
Shale,Mualem Irreducible,0.4,0.20,
~Gas Relative Permeability Card
Sands,van Genuchten,0.4,0.05,
Shale,van Genuchten,0.4,0.05,
~Salt Transport Card
Sands,0.0,m,0.0,m,
Shale,0.0,m,0.0,m,
~Initial Conditions Card
Gas Pressure,Aqueous Pressure,
4,
Gas Pressure,112.0525,Bar,,,,,-0.1001218,1/m,1,100,1,1,1,78,
Aqueous Pressure,112.0525,Bar,,,,,-0.1001218,1/m,1,100,1,1,1,78,
Temperature,37.0,C,,,,,,,1,100,1,1,1,78,
Salt Mass Fraction,0.032,,,,,,,,1,100,1,1,1,78,
~Boundary Conditions Card
1,
East,Aqueous Initial Condition,Gas Initial Condition,Aqueous Initial Condition,
100,100,1,1,1,78,1,
0,s,,,,,,,,,
~Source Card
1,
Gas Mass Rate,Water-Vapor Mass Fraction,1,1,1,1,8,8,1,
0,s,112.0525,bar,0.1585,kg/s,0.0,
~Output Options Card
4,
1,1,8,
1,1,18,
1,1,33,
1,1,48,
1,1,s,m,6,6,6,
8,
Gas Saturation,,
CO2 Gas Mass Fraction,,
CO2 Aqueous Mass Fraction,,
Gas Pressure,Pa,
Aqueous Density,kg/m^3,
Integrated CO2 Mass,kg,
Integrated Aqueous CO2 Mass,kg,
Integrated Gas CO2 Mass,kg,
2,
30,day,
1,year,
7,
Gas Saturation,,
CO2 Gas Mass Fraction,,
CO2 Aqueous Mass Fraction,,
Gas Pressure,Pa,
Diffusive Porosity,,
Gas Density,kg/m^3,
Aqueous Density,kg/m^3,
~Surface Flux Card
5,
Total CO2 Flux,kg/s,kg,Top,1,100,1,1,18,18,
Total CO2 Flux,kg/s,kg,Top,1,100,1,1,21,21,
Total CO2 Flux,kg/s,kg,Top,1,100,1,1,36,36,
Total CO2 Flux,kg/s,kg,Top,1,100,1,1,51,51,
Total CO2 Flux,kg/s,kg,Top,1,100,1,1,66,66,